|An Introduction to Python|
by Guido van Rossum and Fred L. Drake, Jr.
Paperback (6"x9"), 124 pages
RRP £12.95 ($19.95)
Sales of this book support the Python Software Foundation! Get a printed copy>>>
8.5 User-defined Exceptions
Programs may name their own exceptions by creating a new exception
class. Exceptions should typically be derived from the
Exception class, either directly or indirectly. For
>>> class MyError(Exception): ... def __init__(self, value): ... self.value = value ... def __str__(self): ... return repr(self.value) ... >>> try: ... raise MyError(2*2) ... except MyError, e: ... print 'My exception occurred, value:', e.value ... My exception occurred, value: 4 >>> raise MyError, 'oops!' Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in ? __main__.MyError: 'oops!'
In this example, the default
has been overridden. The new behavior simply creates the value
attribute. This replaces the default behavior of creating the
Exception classes can be defined which do anything any other class can do, but are usually kept simple, often only offering a number of attributes that allow information about the error to be extracted by handlers for the exception. When creating a module that can raise several distinct errors, a common practice is to create a base class for exceptions defined by that module, and subclass that to create specific exception classes for different error conditions:
class Error(Exception): """Base class for exceptions in this module.""" pass class InputError(Error): """Exception raised for errors in the input. Attributes: expression -- input expression in which the error occurred message -- explanation of the error """ def __init__(self, expression, message): self.expression = expression self.message = message class TransitionError(Error): """Raised when an operation attempts a state transition that's not allowed. Attributes: previous -- state at beginning of transition next -- attempted new state message -- explanation of why the specific transition is not allowed """ def __init__(self, previous, next, message): self.previous = previous self.next = next self.message = message
Most exceptions are defined with names that end in "Error," similar to the naming of the standard exceptions.
Many standard modules define their own exceptions to report errors that may occur in functions they define. More information on classes is presented in chapter 9, "Classes."
|ISBN 0954161769||An Introduction to Python||See the print edition|