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The PostgreSQL 9.0 Reference Manual - Volume 3 - Server Administration Guide
by The PostgreSQL Global Development Group
Paperback (6"x9"), 274 pages
ISBN 9781906966072
RRP £9.95 ($14.95)

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9.1.4 Preventing Transaction ID Wraparound Failures

PostgreSQL's MVCC transaction semantics depend on being able to compare transaction ID (XID) numbers: a row version with an insertion XID greater than the current transaction's XID is “in the future” and should not be visible to the current transaction. But since transaction IDs have limited size (32 bits) a cluster that runs for a long time (more than 4 billion transactions) would suffer transaction ID wraparound: the XID counter wraps around to zero, and all of a sudden transactions that were in the past appear to be in the future--which means their output become invisible. In short, catastrophic data loss. (Actually the data is still there, but that's cold comfort if you cannot get at it.) To avoid this, it is necessary to vacuum every table in every database at least once every two billion transactions.

The reason that periodic vacuuming solves the problem is that PostgreSQL reserves a special XID as FrozenXID. This XID does not follow the normal XID comparison rules and is always considered older than every normal XID. Normal XIDs are compared using modulo-231 arithmetic. This means that for every normal XID, there are two billion XIDs that are “older” and two billion that are “newer”; another way to say it is that the normal XID space is circular with no endpoint. Therefore, once a row version has been created with a particular normal XID, the row version will appear to be “in the past” for the next two billion transactions, no matter which normal XID we are talking about. If the row version still exists after more than two billion transactions, it will suddenly appear to be in the future. To prevent this, old row versions must be reassigned the XID FrozenXID sometime before they reach the two-billion-transactions-old mark. Once they are assigned this special XID, they will appear to be “in the past” to all normal transactions regardless of wraparound issues, and so such row versions will be valid until deleted, no matter how long that is. This reassignment of old XIDs is handled by VACUUM.

vacuum_freeze_min_age controls how old an XID value has to be before it's replaced with FrozenXID. Larger values of this setting preserve transactional information longer, while smaller values increase the number of transactions that can elapse before the table must be vacuumed again.

VACUUM normally skips pages that don't have any dead row versions, but those pages might still have row versions with old XID values. To ensure all old XIDs have been replaced by FrozenXID, a scan of the whole table is needed. vacuum_freeze_table_age controls when VACUUM does that: a whole table sweep is forced if the table hasn't been fully scanned for vacuum_freeze_table_age minus vacuum_freeze_min_age transactions. Setting it to 0 forces VACUUM to always scan all pages, effectively ignoring the visibility map.

The maximum time that a table can go unvacuumed is two billion transactions minus the vacuum_freeze_min_age value at the time VACUUM last scanned the whole table. If it were to go unvacuumed for longer than that, data loss could result. To ensure that this does not happen, autovacuum is invoked on any table that might contain XIDs older than the age specified by the configuration parameter autovacuum_freeze_max_age. (This will happen even if autovacuum is disabled.)

This implies that if a table is not otherwise vacuumed, autovacuum will be invoked on it approximately once every autovacuum_freeze_max_age minus vacuum_freeze_min_age transactions. For tables that are regularly vacuumed for space reclamation purposes, this is of little importance. However, for static tables (including tables that receive inserts, but no updates or deletes), there is no need to vacuum for space reclamation, so it can be useful to try to maximize the interval between forced autovacuums on very large static tables. Obviously one can do this either by increasing autovacuum_freeze_max_age or decreasing vacuum_freeze_min_age.

The effective maximum for vacuum_freeze_table_age is 0.95 * autovacuum_freeze_max_age; a setting higher than that will be capped to the maximum. A value higher than autovacuum_freeze_max_age wouldn't make sense because an anti-wraparound autovacuum would be triggered at that point anyway, and the 0.95 multiplier leaves some breathing room to run a manual VACUUM before that happens. As a rule of thumb, vacuum_freeze_table_age should be set to a value somewhat below autovacuum_freeze_max_age, leaving enough gap so that a regularly scheduled VACUUM or an autovacuum triggered by normal delete and update activity is run in that window. Setting it too close could lead to anti-wraparound autovacuums, even though the table was recently vacuumed to reclaim space, whereas lower values lead to more frequent whole-table scans.

The sole disadvantage of increasing autovacuum_freeze_max_age (and vacuum_freeze_table_age along with it) is that the ‘pg_clog’ subdirectory of the database cluster will take more space, because it must store the commit status of all transactions back to the autovacuum_freeze_max_age horizon. The commit status uses two bits per transaction, so if autovacuum_freeze_max_age is set to its maximum allowed value of a little less than two billion, ‘pg_clog’ can be expected to grow to about half a gigabyte. If this is trivial compared to your total database size, setting autovacuum_freeze_max_age to its maximum allowed value is recommended. Otherwise, set it depending on what you are willing to allow for ‘pg_clog’ storage. (The default, 200 million transactions, translates to about 50MB of ‘pg_clog’ storage.)

One disadvantage of decreasing vacuum_freeze_min_age is that it might cause VACUUM to do useless work: changing a table row's XID to FrozenXID is a waste of time if the row is modified soon thereafter (causing it to acquire a new XID). So the setting should be large enough that rows are not frozen until they are unlikely to change any more. Another disadvantage of decreasing this setting is that details about exactly which transaction inserted or modified a row will be lost sooner. This information sometimes comes in handy, particularly when trying to analyze what went wrong after a database failure. For these two reasons, decreasing this setting is not recommended except for completely static tables.

To track the age of the oldest XIDs in a database, VACUUM stores XID statistics in the system tables pg_class and pg_database. In particular, the relfrozenxid column of a table's pg_class row contains the freeze cutoff XID that was used by the last whole-table VACUUM for that table. All normal XIDs older than this cutoff XID are guaranteed to have been replaced by FrozenXID within the table. Similarly, the datfrozenxid column of a database's pg_database row is a lower bound on the normal XIDs appearing in that database--it is just the minimum of the per-table relfrozenxid values within the database. A convenient way to examine this information is to execute queries such as:

SELECT relname, age(relfrozenxid) FROM pg_class WHERE relkind 
  = 'r';
SELECT datname, age(datfrozenxid) FROM pg_database;

The age column measures the number of transactions from the cutoff XID to the current transaction's XID.

VACUUM normally only scans pages that have been modified since the last vacuum, but relfrozenxid can only be advanced when the whole table is scanned. The whole table is scanned when relfrozenxid is more than vacuum_freeze_table_age transactions old, when VACUUM's FREEZE option is used, or when all pages happen to require vacuuming to remove dead row versions. When VACUUM scans the whole table, after it's finished age(relfrozenxid) should be a little more than the vacuum_freeze_min_age setting that was used (more by the number of transactions started since the VACUUM started). If no whole-table-scanning VACUUM is issued on the table until autovacuum_freeze_max_age is reached, an autovacuum will soon be forced for the table.

If for some reason autovacuum fails to clear old XIDs from a table, the system will begin to emit warning messages like this when the database's oldest XIDs reach ten million transactions from the wraparound point:

WARNING:  database "mydb" must be vacuumed within 177009986 
  transactions
HINT:  To avoid a database shutdown, execute a database-wide 
  VACUUM in "mydb".

(A manual VACUUM should fix the problem, as suggested by the hint; but note that the VACUUM must be performed by a superuser, else it will fail to process system catalogs and thus not be able to advance the database's datfrozenxid.) If these warnings are ignored, the system will shut down and refuse to start any new transactions once there are fewer than 1 million transactions left until wraparound:

ERROR:  database is not accepting commands to avoid 
  wraparound data loss in database "mydb"
HINT:  Stop the postmaster and use a standalone backend to 
  VACUUM in "mydb".

The 1-million-transaction safety margin exists to let the administrator recover without data loss, by manually executing the required VACUUM commands. However, since the system will not execute commands once it has gone into the safety shutdown mode, the only way to do this is to stop the server and use a single-user backend to execute VACUUM. The shutdown mode is not enforced by a single-user backend. See the postgres reference page for details about using a single-user backend.

ISBN 9781906966072The PostgreSQL 9.0 Reference Manual - Volume 3 - Server Administration GuideSee the print edition