|PostgreSQL Reference Manual - Volume 1 - SQL Language Reference|
by The PostgreSQL Global Development Group
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pg_restore -- restore a PostgreSQL database from an archive file created by pg_dump
pg_restore [option...] [filename]
pg_restore is a utility for restoring a
PostgreSQL database from an archive
pg_dump in one of the non-plain-text
formats. It will issue the commands necessary to reconstruct the
database to the state it was in at the time it was saved. The
archive files also allow pg_restore to
be selective about what is restored, or even to reorder the items
prior to being restored. The archive files are designed to be
portable across architectures.
pg_restore can operate in two modes. If a database name is specified, the archive is restored directly into the database. Otherwise, a script containing the SQL commands necessary to rebuild the database is created and written to a file or standard output. The script output is equivalent to the plain text output format of pg_dump. Some of the options controlling the output are therefore analogous to pg_dump options.
Obviously, pg_restore cannot restore information
that is not present in the archive file. For instance, if the
archive was made using the “dump data as
INSERT commands” option,
pg_restore will not be able to load the data
pg_restore accepts the following command line arguments.
- Specifies the location of the archive file to be restored. If not specified, the standard input is used.
- Restore only the data, not the schema (data definitions).
- Clean (drop) database objects before recreating them.
Create the database before restoring into it. (When this
option is used, the database named with
-dis used only to issue the initial
CREATE DATABASEcommand. All data is restored into the database name that appears in the archive.)
- Connect to database dbname and restore directly into the database.
- Exit if an error is encountered while sending SQL commands to the database. The default is to continue and to display a count of errors at the end of the restoration.
Specify output file for generated script, or for the listing
when used with
-l. Default is the standard output.
Specify format of the archive. It is not necessary to specify
the format, since pg_restore will
determine the format automatically. If specified, it can be
one of the following:
The archive is a
tararchive. Using this archive format allows reordering and/or exclusion of schema elements at the time the database is restored. It is also possible to limit which data is reloaded at restore time.
- The archive is in the custom format of pg_dump. This is the most flexible format in that it allows reordering of data load as well as schema elements. This format is also compressed by default.
- Ignore database version checks.
- Restore definition of named index only.
List the contents of the archive. The output of this operation
can be used with the
-Loption to restrict and reorder the items that are restored.
Restore elements in list-file only, and in the
order they appear in the file. Lines can be moved and may also
be commented out by placing a
;at the start of the line. (See below for examples.)
Restore only objects that are in the named schema. This can be
combined with the
-toption to restore just a specific table.
Do not output commands to set
ownership of objects to match the original database.
By default, pg_restore issues
SET SESSION AUTHORIZATIONstatements to set ownership of created schema elements. These statements will fail unless the initial connection to the database is made by a superuser (or the same user that owns all of the objects in the script). With
-O, any user name can be used for the initial connection, and this user will own all the created objects.
-P function-name(argtype [, ...])
--function=function-name(argtype [, ...])
- Restore the named function only. Be careful to spell the function name and arguments exactly as they appear in the dump file's table of contents.
- This option is obsolete but still accepted for backwards compatibility.
Restore only the schema (data definitions), not the data (table
contents). Sequence current values will not be restored, either.
(Do not confuse this with the
--schemaoption, which uses the word “schema” in a different meaning.)
Specify the superuser user name to use when disabling triggers.
This is only relevant if
- Restore definition and/or data of named table only.
- Restore named trigger only.
- Specifies verbose mode.
- Prevent restoration of access privileges (grant/revoke commands).
This option is only relevant when performing a data-only restore.
It instructs pg_restore to execute commands
to temporarily disable triggers on the target tables while
the data is reloaded. Use this if you have referential
integrity checks or other triggers on the tables that you
do not want to invoke during data reload.
Presently, the commands emitted for
--disable-triggersmust be done as superuser. So, you should also specify a superuser name with
-S, or preferably run pg_restore as a PostgreSQL superuser.
SET SESSION AUTHORIZATIONcommands instead of
ALTER OWNERcommands to determine object ownership. This makes the dump more standards compatible, but depending on the history of the objects in the dump, may not restore properly.
- By default, table data is restored even if the creation command for the table failed (e.g., because it already exists). With this option, data for such a table is skipped. This behavior is useful when the target database may already contain the desired table contents. For example, auxiliary tables for PostgreSQL extensions such as PostGIS may already be loaded in the target database; specifying this option prevents duplicate or obsolete data from being loaded into them. This option is effective only when restoring directly into a database, not when producing SQL script output.
pg_restore also accepts the following command line arguments for connection parameters:
Specifies the host name of the machine on which the server is
running. If the value begins with a slash, it is used as the
directory for the Unix domain socket. The default is taken
PGHOSTenvironment variable, if set, else a Unix domain socket connection is attempted.
Specifies the TCP port or local Unix domain socket file
extension on which the server is listening for connections.
Defaults to the
PGPORTenvironment variable, if set, or a compiled-in default.
- Connect as the given user
- Force a password prompt. This should happen automatically if the server requires password authentication.
Execute the restore as a single transaction (that is, wrap the
emitted commands in
COMMIT). This ensures that either all the commands complete successfully, or no changes are applied. This option implies
- Default connection parameters
When a direct database connection is specified using the
-d option, pg_restore
internally executes SQL statements. If you have
problems running pg_restore, make sure
you are able to select information from the database using, for
If your installation has any local additions to the
template1 database, be careful to load the output of
pg_restore into a truly empty database;
otherwise you are likely to get errors due to duplicate definitions
of the added objects. To make an empty database without any local
additions, copy from
template1, for example:
CREATE DATABASE foo WITH TEMPLATE template0;
The limitations of pg_restore are detailed below.
When restoring data to a pre-existing table and the option
--disable-triggersis used, pg_restore emits commands to disable triggers on user tables before inserting the data then emits commands to re-enable them after the data has been inserted. If the restore is stopped in the middle, the system catalogs may be left in the wrong state.
- pg_restore will not restore large objects for a single table. If an archive contains large objects, then all large objects will be restored.
See also the
pg_dump documentation for details on
limitations of pg_dump.
Once restored, it is wise to run
ANALYZE on each
restored table so the optimizer has useful statistics.
Assume we have dumped a database called
mydb into a
custom-format dump file:
$ pg_dump -Fc mydb > db.dump
To drop the database and recreate it from the dump:
$ dropdb mydb $ pg_restore -C -d postgres db.dump
The database named in the
-d switch can be any database existing
in the cluster; pg_restore only uses it to issue the
CREATE DATABASE command for
-C, data is always restored into the database name that appears
in the dump file.
To reload the dump into a new database called
$ createdb -T template0 newdb $ pg_restore -d newdb db.dump
Notice we don't use
-C, and instead connect directly to the
database to be restored into. Also note that we clone the new database
template1, to ensure it is
To reorder database items, it is first necessary to dump the table of contents of the archive:
$ pg_restore -l db.dump > db.list
The listing file consists of a header and one line for each item, e.g.,
; ; Archive created at Fri Jul 28 22:28:36 2000 ; dbname: mydb ; TOC Entries: 74 ; Compression: 0 ; Dump Version: 1.4-0 ; Format: CUSTOM ; ; ; Selected TOC Entries: ; 2; 145344 TABLE species postgres 3; 145344 ACL species 4; 145359 TABLE nt_header postgres 5; 145359 ACL nt_header 6; 145402 TABLE species_records postgres 7; 145402 ACL species_records 8; 145416 TABLE ss_old postgres 9; 145416 ACL ss_old 10; 145433 TABLE map_resolutions postgres 11; 145433 ACL map_resolutions 12; 145443 TABLE hs_old postgres 13; 145443 ACL hs_old
Semicolons start a comment, and the numbers at the start of lines refer to the internal archive ID assigned to each item.
Lines in the file can be commented out, deleted, and reordered. For example,
10; 145433 TABLE map_resolutions postgres ;2; 145344 TABLE species postgres ;4; 145359 TABLE nt_header postgres 6; 145402 TABLE species_records postgres ;8; 145416 TABLE ss_old postgres
could be used as input to pg_restore and would only restore items 10 and 6, in that order:
$ pg_restore -L db.list db.dump
The pg_restore utility first appeared in PostgreSQL 7.1.
|ISBN 0954612027||PostgreSQL Reference Manual - Volume 1 - SQL Language Reference||See the print edition|