|PostgreSQL Reference Manual - Volume 1 - SQL Language Reference|
by The PostgreSQL Global Development Group
Paperback (6"x9"), 716 pages
RRP £32.00 ($49.95)
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2.1 Lexical Structure
SQL input consists of a sequence of commands. A command is composed of a sequence of tokens, terminated by a semicolon (“;”). The end of the input stream also terminates a command. Which tokens are valid depends on the syntax of the particular command.
A token can be a key word, an identifier, a quoted identifier, a literal (or constant), or a special character symbol. Tokens are normally separated by whitespace (space, tab, newline), but need not be if there is no ambiguity (which is generally only the case if a special character is adjacent to some other token type).
Additionally, comments can occur in SQL input. They are not tokens, they are effectively equivalent to whitespace.
For example, the following is (syntactically) valid SQL input:
SELECT * FROM MY_TABLE; UPDATE MY_TABLE SET A = 5; INSERT INTO MY_TABLE VALUES (3, 'hi there');
This is a sequence of three commands, one per line (although this is not required; more than one command can be on a line, and commands can usefully be split across lines).
The SQL syntax is not very consistent regarding what tokens
identify commands and which are operands or parameters. The first
few tokens are generally the command name, so in the above example
we would usually speak of a “SELECT”, an
“UPDATE”, and an “INSERT” command. But
for instance the
UPDATE command always requires
SET token to appear in a certain position, and
this particular variation of
VALUES in order to be complete. The
precise syntax rules for each command are described in the SQL Command Reference.
|ISBN 0954612027||PostgreSQL Reference Manual - Volume 1 - SQL Language Reference||See the print edition|