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Perl Language Reference Manual
by Larry Wall and others
Paperback (6"x9"), 724 pages
ISBN 9781906966027
RRP £29.95 ($39.95)

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%SIG

$SIG{expr}

The hash %SIG contains signal handlers for signals. For example:

sub handler {       # 1st argument is signal name
    my($sig) = @_;
    print "Caught a SIG$sig--shutting down\n";
    close(LOG);
    exit(0);
}
$SIG{'INT'}  = \&handler;
$SIG{'QUIT'} = \&handler;
...
$SIG{'INT'}  = 'DEFAULT';   # restore default action
$SIG{'QUIT'} = 'IGNORE';    # ignore SIGQUIT

Using a value of 'IGNORE' usually has the effect of ignoring the signal, except for the CHLD signal. See 20 for more about this special case.

Here are some other examples:

$SIG{"PIPE"} = "Plumber";   # assumes main::Plumber
                            #  (not recommended)
$SIG{"PIPE"} = \&Plumber;   # just fine; assume current Plumber
$SIG{"PIPE"} = *Plumber;    # somewhat esoteric
$SIG{"PIPE"} = Plumber();   # oops, what did Plumber() return??

Be sure not to use a bareword as the name of a signal handler, lest you inadvertently call it.

If your system has the sigaction() function then signal handlers are installed using it. This means you get reliable signal handling.

The default delivery policy of signals changed in Perl 5.8.0 from immediate (also known as "unsafe") to deferred, also known as "safe signals". See 20 for more information.

Certain internal hooks can be also set using the %SIG hash. The routine indicated by $SIG{__WARN__} is called when a warning message is about to be printed. The warning message is passed as the first argument. The presence of a __WARN__ hook causes the ordinary printing of warnings to STDERR to be suppressed. You can use this to save warnings in a variable, or turn warnings into fatal errors, like this:

local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub { die $_[0] };
eval $proggie;

As the 'IGNORE' hook is not supported by __WARN__, you can disable warnings using the empty subroutine:

local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub {};

The routine indicated by $SIG{__DIE__} is called when a fatal exception is about to be thrown. The error message is passed as the first argument. When a __DIE__ hook routine returns, the exception processing continues as it would have in the absence of the hook, unless the hook routine itself exits via a goto, a loop exit, or a die(). The __DIE__ handler is explicitly disabled during the call, so that you can die from a __DIE__ handler. Similarly for __WARN__.

Due to an implementation glitch, the $SIG{__DIE__} hook is called even inside an eval(). Do not use this to rewrite a pending exception in $@, or as a bizarre substitute for overriding CORE::GLOBAL::die(). This strange action at a distance may be fixed in a future release so that $SIG{__DIE__} is only called if your program is about to exit, as was the original intent. Any other use is deprecated.

__DIE__/__WARN__ handlers are very special in one respect: they may be called to report (probable) errors found by the parser. In such a case the parser may be in inconsistent state, so any attempt to evaluate Perl code from such a handler will probably result in a segfault. This means that warnings or errors that result from parsing Perl should be used with extreme caution, like this:

require Carp if defined $^S;
Carp::confess("Something wrong") if defined &Carp::confess;
die "Something wrong, but could not load Carp to give backtrace.
     To see backtrace try starting Perl with -MCarp switch";

Here the first line will load Carp unless it is the parser who called the handler. The second line will print backtrace and die if Carp was available. The third line will be executed only if Carp was not available.

See , , , and "Perl pragma to control optional warnings" (warnings) in the Perl Library Reference Manual (Volume 1) for additional information.

ISBN 9781906966027Perl Language Reference ManualSee the print edition