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Perl Language Reference Manual
by Larry Wall and others
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18.3 Tying Hashes

Hashes were the first Perl data type to be tied (see dbmopen()). A class implementing a tied hash should define the following methods: TIEHASH is the constructor. FETCH and STORE access the key and value pairs. EXISTS reports whether a key is present in the hash, and DELETE deletes one. CLEAR empties the hash by deleting all the key and value pairs. FIRSTKEY and NEXTKEY implement the keys() and each() functions to iterate over all the keys. SCALAR is triggered when the tied hash is evaluated in scalar context. UNTIE is called when untie happens, and DESTROY is called when the tied variable is garbage collected.

If this seems like a lot, then feel free to inherit from merely the standard Tie::StdHash module for most of your methods, redefining only the interesting ones. See Tie::Hash for details.

Remember that Perl distinguishes between a key not existing in the hash, and the key existing in the hash but having a corresponding value of undef. The two possibilities can be tested with the exists() and defined() functions.

Here's an example of a somewhat interesting tied hash class: it gives you a hash representing a particular user's dot files. You index into the hash with the name of the file (minus the dot) and you get back that dot file's contents. For example:

use DotFiles;
tie %dot, 'DotFiles';
if ( $dot{profile} =~ /MANPATH/ ||
     $dot{login}   =~ /MANPATH/ ||
     $dot{cshrc}   =~ /MANPATH/    )
    print "you seem to set your MANPATH\n";

Or here's another sample of using our tied class:

tie %him, 'DotFiles', 'daemon';
foreach $f ( keys %him ) {
    printf "daemon dot file %s is size %d\n",
        $f, length $him{$f};

In our tied hash DotFiles example, we use a regular hash for the object containing several important fields, of which only the {LIST} field will be what the user thinks of as the real hash.

whose dot files this object represents
where those dot files live
whether we should try to change or remove those dot files
the hash of dot file names and content mappings

Here's the start of Dotfiles.pm:

package DotFiles;
use Carp;
sub whowasi { (caller(1))[3] . '()' }
my $DEBUG = 0;
sub debug { $DEBUG = @_ ? shift : 1 }

For our example, we want to be able to emit debugging info to help in tracing during development. We keep also one convenience function around internally to help print out warnings; whowasi() returns the function name that calls it.

Here are the methods for the DotFiles tied hash.

TIEHASH classname, LIST
This is the constructor for the class. That means it is expected to return a blessed reference through which the new object (probably but not necessarily an anonymous hash) will be accessed. Here's the constructor:
    my $self = shift;
    my $user = shift || $>;
    my $dotdir = shift || ”;
    croak "usage: @{[&whowasi]} [USER [DOTDIR]]" if @_;
    $user = getpwuid($user) if $user =~ /^\d+$/;
    my $dir = (getpwnam($user))[7]
            || croak "@{[&whowasi]}: no user $user";
    $dir .= "/$dotdir" if $dotdir;
    my $node = {
        USER    => $user,
        HOME    => $dir,
        LIST    => {},
        CLOBBER => 0,
    opendir(DIR, $dir)
            || croak "@{[&whowasi]}: can't opendir $dir: $!";
    foreach $dot ( grep /^\./ && -f "$dir/$_", readdir(DIR)) {
        $dot =~ s/^\.//;
        $node->{LIST}{$dot} = undef;
    closedir DIR;
    return bless $node, $self;
It's probably worth mentioning that if you're going to filetest the return values out of a readdir, you'd better prepend the directory in question. Otherwise, because we didn't chdir() there, it would have been testing the wrong file.
FETCH this, key
This method will be triggered every time an element in the tied hash is accessed (read). It takes one argument beyond its self reference: the key whose value we're trying to fetch. Here's the fetch for our DotFiles example.
sub FETCH {
    carp &whowasi if $DEBUG;
    my $self = shift;
    my $dot = shift;
    my $dir = $self->{HOME};
    my $file = "$dir/.$dot";
    unless (exists $self->{LIST}->{$dot} || -f $file) {
        carp "@{[&whowasi]}: no $dot file" if $DEBUG;
        return undef;
    if (defined $self->{LIST}->{$dot}) {
        return $self->{LIST}->{$dot};
    } else {
        return $self->{LIST}->{$dot} = `cat $dir/.$dot`;
It was easy to write by having it call the Unix cat(1) command, but it would probably be more portable to open the file manually (and somewhat more efficient). Of course, because dot files are a Unixy concept, we're not that concerned.
STORE this, key, value
This method will be triggered every time an element in the tied hash is set (written). It takes two arguments beyond its self reference: the index at which we're trying to store something, and the value we're trying to put there. Here in our DotFiles example, we'll be careful not to let them try to overwrite the file unless they've called the clobber() method on the original object reference returned by tie().
sub STORE {
    carp &whowasi if $DEBUG;
    my $self = shift;
    my $dot = shift;
    my $value = shift;
    my $file = $self->{HOME} . "/.$dot";
    my $user = $self->{USER};
    croak "@{[&whowasi]}: $file not clobberable"
        unless $self->{CLOBBER};
    open(F, "> $file") || croak "can't open $file: $!";
    print F $value;
If they wanted to clobber something, they might say:
$ob = tie %daemon_dots, 'daemon';
$daemon_dots{signature} = "A true daemon\n";
Another way to lay hands on a reference to the underlying object is to use the tied() function, so they might alternately have set clobber using:
tie %daemon_dots, 'daemon';
The clobber method is simply:
sub clobber {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->{CLOBBER} = @_ ? shift : 1;
DELETE this, key
This method is triggered when we remove an element from the hash, typically by using the delete() function. Again, we'll be careful to check whether they really want to clobber files.
sub DELETE   {
    carp &whowasi if $DEBUG;
    my $self = shift;
    my $dot = shift;
    my $file = $self->{HOME} . "/.$dot";
    croak "@{[&whowasi]}: won't remove file $file"
        unless $self->{CLOBBER};
    delete $self->{LIST}->{$dot};
    my $success = unlink($file);
    carp "@{[&whowasi]}: can't unlink $file: $!" unless $success;
The value returned by DELETE becomes the return value of the call to delete(). If you want to emulate the normal behavior of delete(), you should return whatever FETCH would have returned for this key. In this example, we have chosen instead to return a value which tells the caller whether the file was successfully deleted.
CLEAR this
This method is triggered when the whole hash is to be cleared, usually by assigning the empty list to it. In our example, that would remove all the user's dot files! It's such a dangerous thing that they'll have to set CLOBBER to something higher than 1 to make it happen.
sub CLEAR    {
    carp &whowasi if $DEBUG;
    my $self = shift;
    croak "@{[&whowasi]}: won't remove all dot files for
        unless $self->{CLOBBER} > 1;
    my $dot;
    foreach $dot ( keys %{$self->{LIST}}) {
EXISTS this, key
This method is triggered when the user uses the exists() function on a particular hash. In our example, we'll look at the {LIST} hash element for this:
sub EXISTS   {
    carp &whowasi if $DEBUG;
    my $self = shift;
    my $dot = shift;
    return exists $self->{LIST}->{$dot};
This method will be triggered when the user is going to iterate through the hash, such as via a keys() or each() call.
    carp &whowasi if $DEBUG;
    my $self = shift;
    my $a = keys %{$self->{LIST}};          # reset each() iterator
    each %{$self->{LIST}}
NEXTKEY this, lastkey
This method gets triggered during a keys() or each() iteration. It has a second argument which is the last key that had been accessed. This is useful if you're carrying about ordering or calling the iterator from more than one sequence, or not really storing things in a hash anywhere. For our example, we're using a real hash so we'll do just the simple thing, but we'll have to go through the LIST field indirectly.
sub NEXTKEY  {
    carp &whowasi if $DEBUG;
    my $self = shift;
    return each %{ $self->{LIST} }
This is called when the hash is evaluated in scalar context. In order to mimic the behaviour of untied hashes, this method should return a false value when the tied hash is considered empty. If this method does not exist, perl will make some educated guesses and return true when the hash is inside an iteration. If this isn't the case, FIRSTKEY is called, and the result will be a false value if FIRSTKEY returns the empty list, true otherwise. However, you should not blindly rely on perl always doing the right thing. Particularly, perl will mistakenly return true when you clear the hash by repeatedly calling DELETE until it is empty. You are therefore advised to supply your own SCALAR method when you want to be absolutely sure that your hash behaves nicely in scalar context. In our example we can just call scalar on the underlying hash referenced by $self->{LIST}:
sub SCALAR {
    carp &whowasi if $DEBUG;
    my $self = shift;
    return scalar %{ $self->{LIST} }
UNTIE this
This is called when untie occurs. See 18.6 below.
This method is triggered when a tied hash is about to go out of scope. You don't really need it unless you're trying to add debugging or have auxiliary state to clean up. Here's a very simple function:
sub DESTROY  {
    carp &whowasi if $DEBUG;

Note that functions such as keys() and values() may return huge lists when used on large objects, like DBM files. You may prefer to use the each() function to iterate over such. Example:

# print out history file offsets
use NDBM_File;
tie(%HIST, 'NDBM_File', '/usr/lib/news/history', 1, 0);
while (($key,$val) = each %HIST) {
    print $key, ' = ', unpack('L',$val), "\n";
ISBN 9781906966027Perl Language Reference ManualSee the print edition