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Perl Language Reference Manual
by Larry Wall and others
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ISBN 9781906966027
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28.3.2 DOS and Derivatives

Perl has long been ported to Intel-style microcomputers running under systems like PC-DOS, MS-DOS, OS/2, and most Windows platforms you can bring yourself to mention (except for Windows CE, if you count that). Users familiar with COMMAND.COM or CMD.EXE style shells should be aware that each of these file specifications may have subtle differences:

my $filespec0 = "c:/foo/bar/file.txt";
my $filespec1 = "c:\\foo\\bar\\file.txt";
my $filespec2 = 'c:\foo\bar\file.txt';
my $filespec3 = 'c:\\foo\\bar\\file.txt';

System calls accept either / or \ as the path separator. However, many command-line utilities of DOS vintage treat / as the option prefix, so may get confused by filenames containing /. Aside from calling any external programs, / will work just fine, and probably better, as it is more consistent with popular usage, and avoids the problem of remembering what to backwhack and what not to.

The DOS FAT filesystem can accommodate only "8.3" style filenames. Under the "case-insensitive, but case-preserving" HPFS (OS/2) and NTFS (NT) filesystems you may have to be careful about case returned with functions like readdir or used with functions like open or opendir.

DOS also treats several filenames as special, such as AUX, PRN, NUL, CON, COM1, LPT1, LPT2, etc. Unfortunately, sometimes these filenames won't even work if you include an explicit directory prefix. It is best to avoid such filenames, if you want your code to be portable to DOS and its derivatives. It's hard to know what these all are, unfortunately.

Users of these operating systems may also wish to make use of scripts such as pl2bat.bat or pl2cmd to put wrappers around your scripts.

Newline (\n) is translated as \015\012 by STDIO when reading from and writing to files (see 28.1.1). binmode(FILEHANDLE) will keep \n translated as \012 for that filehandle. Since it is a no-op on other systems, binmode should be used for cross-platform code that deals with binary data. That's assuming you realize in advance that your data is in binary. General-purpose programs should often assume nothing about their data.

The $^O variable and the $Config{archname} values for various DOSish perls are as follows:

OS $^O $Config{archname} ID Version
MS-DOS dos ?
PC-DOS dos ?
OS/2 os2 ?
Windows 3.1 ? ? 0 3 01
Windows 95 MSWin32 MSWin32-x86 1 4 00
Windows 98 MSWin32 MSWin32-x86 1 4 10
Windows ME MSWin32 MSWin32-x86 1 ?
Windows NT MSWin32 MSWin32-x86 2 4 xx
Windows NT MSWin32 MSWin32-ALPHA 2 4 xx
Windows NT MSWin32 MSWin32-ppc 2 4 xx
Windows 2000 MSWin32 MSWin32-x86 2 5 00
Windows XP MSWin32 MSWin32-x86 2 5 01
Windows 2003 MSWin32 MSWin32-x86 2 5 02
Windows CE MSWin32 ? 3
Cygwin cygwin cygwin
The various MSWin32 Perl's can distinguish the OS they are running on via the value of the fifth element of the list returned from Win32::GetOSVersion(). For example:
if ($^O eq 'MSWin32') {
    my @os_version_info = Win32::GetOSVersion();
    print +('3.1','95','NT')[$os_version_info[4]],"\n";
}
There are also Win32::IsWinNT() and Win32::IsWin95(), try perldoc Win32, and as of libwin32 0.19 (not part of the core Perl distribution) Win32::GetOSName(). The very portable POSIX::uname() will work too:
c:\> perl -MPOSIX -we "print join '|', uname"
Windows NT|moonru|5.0|Build 2195 (Service Pack 2)|x86
Also see:
ISBN 9781906966027Perl Language Reference ManualSee the print edition