Perl Language Reference Manual by Larry Wall and others Paperback (6"x9"), 724 pages ISBN 9781906966027 RRP £29.95 ($39.95) Sales of this book support The Perl Foundation! Get a printed copy>>> 
2.8 Builtin operators and functions
Perl comes with a wide selection of builtin functions. Some of the ones
we've already seen include print
, sort
and reverse
. A list of
them is given at the start of 9 and you can easily read
about any given function by using perldoc f functionname
.
Perl operators are documented in full in 7, but here are a few of the most common ones:
Arithmetic

+ addition  subtraction * multiplication / division
Numeric comparison

== equality != inequality < less than > greater than <= less than or equal >= greater than or equal
String comparison

eq equality ne inequality lt less than gt greater than le less than or equal ge greater than or equal
(Why do we have separate numeric and string comparisons? Because we don't have special variable types, and Perl needs to know whether to sort numerically (where 99 is less than 100) or alphabetically (where 100 comes before 99). Boolean logic

&& and  or ! not
(and
,or
andnot
aren't just in the above table as descriptions of the operators. They're also supported as operators in their own right. They're more readable than the Cstyle operators, but have different precedence to&&
and friends. Check 7 for more detail.) Miscellaneous

= assignment . string concatenation x string multiplication .. range operator (creates a list of numbers)
Many operators can be combined with a =
as follows:
$a += 1; # same as $a = $a + 1 $a = 1; # same as $a = $a  1 $a .= "\n"; # same as $a = $a . "\n";
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