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Perl Language Reference Manual
by Larry Wall and others
Paperback (6"x9"), 724 pages
ISBN 9781906966027
RRP £29.95 ($39.95)

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23.1.4 Debugger input/output

The debugger prompt is something like
or even
where that number is the command number, and which you'd use to access with the built-in csh-like history mechanism. For example, !17 would repeat command number 17. The depth of the angle brackets indicates the nesting depth of the debugger. You could get more than one set of brackets, for example, if you'd already at a breakpoint and then printed the result of a function call that itself has a breakpoint, or you step into an expression via s/n/t expression command.
Multiline commands
If you want to enter a multi-line command, such as a subroutine definition with several statements or a format, escape the newline that would normally end the debugger command with a backslash. Here's an example:
DB<1> for (1..4) {         \
cont:     print "ok\n";   \
cont: }
Note that this business of escaping a newline is specific to interactive commands typed into the debugger.
Stack backtrace
Here's an example of what a stack backtrace via T command might look like:
$ = main::infested called from 
        file `Ambulation.pm' line 10
@ = Ambulation::legs(1, 2, 3, 4) called from 
        file `camel_flea' line 7
$ = main::pests('bactrian', 4) called from 
        file `camel_flea' line 4
The left-hand character up there indicates the context in which the function was called, with $ and @ meaning scalar or list contexts respectively, and . meaning void context (which is actually a sort of scalar context). The display above says that you were in the function main::infested when you ran the stack dump, and that it was called in scalar context from line 10 of the file Ambulation.pm, but without any arguments at all, meaning it was called as &infested. The next stack frame shows that the function Ambulation::legs was called in list context from the camel_flea file with four arguments. The last stack frame shows that main::pests was called in scalar context, also from camel_flea, but from line 4. If you execute the T command from inside an active use statement, the backtrace will contain both a require frame and an eval) frame.
Line Listing Format
This shows the sorts of output the l command can produce:
  DB<<13>> l
101:         @i{@i} = ();
102:b        @isa{@i,$pack} = ()
103              if(exists $i{$prevpack} || exists $isa{$pack});
104      }
106      next
107==>       if(exists $isa{$pack});
109:a    if ($extra-- > 0) {
110:         %isa = ($pack,1);
Breakable lines are marked with :. Lines with breakpoints are marked by b and those with actions by a. The line that's about to be executed is marked by ==>. Please be aware that code in debugger listings may not look the same as your original source code. Line directives and external source filters can alter the code before Perl sees it, causing code to move from its original positions or take on entirely different forms.
Frame listing
When the frame option is set, the debugger would print entered (and optionally exited) subroutines in different styles. See "Guts of Perl debugging" (perldebguts) in the Perl C API and Internals Manual for incredibly long examples of these.
ISBN 9781906966027Perl Language Reference ManualSee the print edition