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 GNU Scientific Library Reference Manual - Third Edition (v1.12) by M. Galassi, J. Davies, J. Theiler, B. Gough, G. Jungman, P. Alken, M. Booth, F. RossiPaperback (6"x9"), 592 pages, 60 figuresISBN 0954612078RRP £24.95 (\$39.95)

## 35.4 Providing a function to minimize

You must provide a parametric function of n variables for the minimizers to operate on. You may also need to provide a routine which calculates the gradient of the function and a third routine which calculates both the function value and the gradient together. In order to allow for general parameters the functions are defined by the following data types:

Data Type: gsl_multimin_function_fdf
This data type defines a general function of n variables with parameters and the corresponding gradient vector of derivatives,
`double (* f) (const gsl_vector * x, void * params)`
this function should return the result f(x,params) for argument x and parameters params. If the function cannot be computed, an error value of `GSL_NAN` should be returned.
`void (* df) (const gsl_vector * x, void * params, gsl_vector * g)`
this function should store the n-dimensional gradient result g_i = d f(x,params) / d x_i in the vector g for argument x and parameters params, returning an appropriate error code if the function cannot be computed.
`void (* fdf) (const gsl_vector * x, void * params, double * f, gsl_vector * g)`
This function should set the values of the f and g as above, for arguments x and parameters params. This function provides an optimization of the separate functions for f(x) and g(x)---it is always faster to compute the function and its derivative at the same time.
`size_t n`
the dimension of the system, i.e. the number of components of the vectors x.
`void * params`
a pointer to the parameters of the function.
Data Type: gsl_multimin_function
This data type defines a general function of n variables with parameters,
`double (* f) (const gsl_vector * x, void * params)`
this function should return the result f(x,params) for argument x and parameters params. If the function cannot be computed, an error value of `GSL_NAN` should be returned.
`size_t n`
the dimension of the system, i.e. the number of components of the vectors x.
`void * params`
a pointer to the parameters of the function.

The following example function defines a simple two-dimensional paraboloid with five parameters,

```/* Paraboloid centered on (p[0],p[1]), with
scale factors (p[2],p[3]) and minimum p[4] */

double
my_f (const gsl_vector *v, void *params)
{
double x, y;
double *p = (double *)params;

x = gsl_vector_get(v, 0);
y = gsl_vector_get(v, 1);

return p[2] * (x - p[0]) * (x - p[0]) +
p[3] * (y - p[1]) * (y - p[1]) + p[4];
}

/* The gradient of f, df = (df/dx, df/dy). */
void
my_df (const gsl_vector *v, void *params,
gsl_vector *df)
{
double x, y;
double *p = (double *)params;

x = gsl_vector_get(v, 0);
y = gsl_vector_get(v, 1);

gsl_vector_set(df, 0, 2.0 * p[2] * (x - p[0]));
gsl_vector_set(df, 1, 2.0 * p[3] * (y - p[1]));
}

/* Compute both f and df together. */
void
my_fdf (const gsl_vector *x, void *params,
double *f, gsl_vector *df)
{
*f = my_f(x, params);
my_df(x, params, df);
}
```

The function can be initialized using the following code,

```gsl_multimin_function_fdf my_func;

/* Paraboloid center at (1,2), scale factors (10, 20),
minimum value 30 */
double p[5] = { 1.0, 2.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0 };

my_func.n = 2;  /* number of function components */
my_func.f = &my_f;
my_func.df = &my_df;
my_func.fdf = &my_fdf;
my_func.params = (void *)p;
```
 ISBN 0954612078 GNU Scientific Library Reference Manual - Third Edition (v1.12) See the print edition