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 GNU Scientific Library Reference Manual - Third Edition (v1.12) by M. Galassi, J. Davies, J. Theiler, B. Gough, G. Jungman, P. Alken, M. Booth, F. RossiPaperback (6"x9"), 592 pages, 60 figuresISBN 0954612078RRP £24.95 (\$39.95)

## 34.1 Overview

The problem of multidimensional root finding requires the simultaneous solution of n equations, f_i, in n variables, x_i,

```f_i (x_1, ..., x_n) = 0    for i = 1 ... n.
```

In general there are no bracketing methods available for n dimensional systems, and no way of knowing whether any solutions exist. All algorithms proceed from an initial guess using a variant of the Newton iteration,

```x -> x' = x - J^{-1} f(x)
```

where x, f are vector quantities and J is the Jacobian matrix J_{ij} = d f_i / d x_j. Additional strategies can be used to enlarge the region of convergence. These include requiring a decrease in the norm |f| on each step proposed by Newton's method, or taking steepest-descent steps in the direction of the negative gradient of |f|.

Several root-finding algorithms are available within a single framework. The user provides a high-level driver for the algorithms, and the library provides the individual functions necessary for each of the steps. There are three main phases of the iteration. The steps are,

• initialize solver state, s, for algorithm T
• update s using the iteration T
• test s for convergence, and repeat iteration if necessary

The evaluation of the Jacobian matrix can be problematic, either because programming the derivatives is intractable or because computation of the n^2 terms of the matrix becomes too expensive. For these reasons the algorithms provided by the library are divided into two classes according to whether the derivatives are available or not.

The state for solvers with an analytic Jacobian matrix is held in a `gsl_multiroot_fdfsolver` struct. The updating procedure requires both the function and its derivatives to be supplied by the user.

The state for solvers which do not use an analytic Jacobian matrix is held in a `gsl_multiroot_fsolver` struct. The updating procedure uses only function evaluations (not derivatives). The algorithms estimate the matrix J or J^{-1} by approximate methods.

 ISBN 0954612078 GNU Scientific Library Reference Manual - Third Edition (v1.12) See the print edition