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An Introduction to GCC - for the GNU compilers gcc and g++
by Brian J. Gough, foreword by Richard M. Stallman
Paperback (6"x9"), 144 pages
ISBN 0954161793
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11.4 The assembler

The purpose of the assembler is to convert assembly language into machine code and generate an object file. When there are calls to external functions in the assembly source file, the assembler leaves the addresses of the external functions undefined, to be filled in later by the linker. The assembler can be invoked with the following command line:

$ as hello.s -o hello.o

As with GCC, the output file is specified with the -o option. The resulting file ‘hello.o’ contains the machine instructions for the Hello World program, with an undefined reference to printf.

ISBN 0954161793An Introduction to GCC - for the GNU compilers gcc and g++See the print edition