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The Apache HTTP Server Reference Manual
by Apache Software Foundation
Paperback (6"x9"), 862 pages
ISBN 9781906966034
RRP £19.95 ($29.95)

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Contents

Publisher’s Preface
Notes for this printed edition
1  Apache HTTP Server and Supporting Programs
 1.1  Server and Supporting Programs
  1.1.1  Index
 1.2  httpd - Apache Hypertext Transfer Protocol Server
  1.2.1  Synopsis
  1.2.2  Options
 1.3  ab - Apache HTTP server benchmarking tool
  1.3.1  Synopsis
  1.3.2  Options
  1.3.3  Bugs
 1.4  apachectl - Apache HTTP Server Control Interface
  1.4.1  Synopsis
  1.4.2  Options
 1.5  apxs - APache eXtenSion tool
  1.5.1  Synopsis
  1.5.2  Options
  1.5.3  Examples
 1.6  configure - Configure the source tree
  1.6.1  Synopsis
  1.6.2  Options
  1.6.3  Environment variables
 1.7  dbmmanage - Manage user authentication files in DBM format
  1.7.1  Synopsis
  1.7.2  Options
  1.7.3  Bugs
 1.8  htcacheclean - Clean up the disk cache
  1.8.1  Synopsis
  1.8.2  Options
  1.8.3  Exit Status
 1.9  htdbm - Manipulate DBM password databases
  1.9.1  Synopsis
  1.9.2  Options
  1.9.3  Bugs
  1.9.4  Exit Status
  1.9.5  Examples
  1.9.6  Security Considerations
  1.9.7  Restrictions
 1.10  htdigest - manage user files for digest authentication
  1.10.1  Synopsis
  1.10.2  Options
  1.10.3  Security Considerations
 1.11  htpasswd - Manage user files for basic authentication
  1.11.1  Synopsis
  1.11.2  Options
  1.11.3  Exit Status
  1.11.4  Examples
  1.11.5  Security Considerations
  1.11.6  Restrictions
 1.12  httxt2dbm - Generate dbm files for use with RewriteMap
  1.12.1  Synopsis
  1.12.2  Options
  1.12.3  Examples
 1.13  logresolve - Resolve IP-addresses to hostnames in Apache log files
  1.13.1  Synopsis
  1.13.2  Options
 1.14  rotatelogs - Piped logging program to rotate Apache logs
  1.14.1  Synopsis
  1.14.2  Options
  1.14.3  Examples
  1.14.4  Portability
 1.15  suexec - Switch user before executing external programs
  1.15.1  Synopsis
  1.15.2  Options
 1.16  Other Programs
  1.16.1  log_server_status
  1.16.2  split-logfile
2  Using the Apache HTTP Server
 2.1  Starting Apache
  2.1.1  How Apache Starts
  2.1.2  Errors During Start-up
  2.1.3  Starting at Boot-Time
  2.1.4  Additional Information
 2.2  Stopping and Restarting
  2.2.1  Introduction
  2.2.2  Stop Now
  2.2.3  Graceful Restart
  2.2.4  Restart Now
  2.2.5  Graceful Stop
 2.3  Configuration Files
  2.3.1  Main Configuration Files
  2.3.2  Syntax of the Configuration Files
  2.3.3  Modules
  2.3.4  Scope of Directives
  2.3.5  .htaccess Files
 2.4  Configuration Sections
  2.4.1  Types of Configuration Section Containers
  2.4.2  Filesystem and Webspace
  2.4.3  Virtual Hosts
  2.4.4  Proxy
  2.4.5  What Directives are Allowed?
  2.4.6  How the sections are merged
 2.5  Server-Wide Configuration
  2.5.1  Server Identification
  2.5.2  File Locations
  2.5.3  Limiting Resource Usage
 2.6  Log Files
  2.6.1  Security Warning
  2.6.2  Error Log
  2.6.3  Access Log
  2.6.4  Log Rotation
  2.6.5  Piped Logs
  2.6.6  Virtual Hosts
  2.6.7  Other Log Files
 2.7  Mapping URLs to Filesystem Locations
  2.7.1  Related Modules and Directives
  2.7.2  DocumentRoot
  2.7.3  Files Outside the DocumentRoot
  2.7.4  User Directories
  2.7.5  URL Redirection
  2.7.6  Reverse Proxy
  2.7.7  Rewriting Engine
  2.7.8  File Not Found
3  Apache modules
 3.1  Terms Used to Describe Modules
  3.1.1  Description
  3.1.2  Status
  3.1.3  Source File
  3.1.4  Module Identifier
  3.1.5  Compatibility
 3.2  Terms Used to Describe Directives
  3.2.1  Description
  3.2.2  Syntax
  3.2.3  Default
  3.2.4  Context
  3.2.5  Override
  3.2.6  Status
  3.2.7  Module
  3.2.8  Compatibility
 3.3  Apache Module core
 3.4  Apache Module mod_actions
 3.5  Apache Module mod_alias
  3.5.1  Order of Processing
 3.6  Apache Module mod_asis
  3.6.1  Usage
 3.7  Apache Module mod_auth_basic
 3.8  Apache Module mod_auth_digest
  3.8.1  Using Digest Authentication
  3.8.2  Working with MS Internet Explorer
 3.9  Apache Module mod_authn_alias
  3.9.1  Examples
 3.10  Apache Module mod_authn_anon
  3.10.1  Example
 3.11  Apache Module mod_authn_dbd
  3.11.1  Configuration Example
  3.11.2  Exposing Login Information
 3.12  Apache Module mod_authn_dbm
 3.13  Apache Module mod_authn_default
 3.14  Apache Module mod_authn_file
 3.15  Apache Module mod_authnz_ldap
  3.15.1  Contents
  3.15.2  Operation
  3.15.3  The Require Directives
  3.15.4  Examples
  3.15.5  Using TLS
  3.15.6  Using SSL
  3.15.7  Exposing Login Information
  3.15.8  Using Microsoft FrontPage with mod_authnz_ldap
 3.16  Apache Module mod_authz_dbm
 3.17  Apache Module mod_authz_default
 3.18  Apache Module mod_authz_groupfile
 3.19  Apache Module mod_authz_host
 3.20  Apache Module mod_authz_owner
  3.20.1  Configuration Examples
 3.21  Apache Module mod_authz_user
 3.22  Apache Module mod_autoindex
  3.22.1  Autoindex Request Query Arguments
 3.23  Apache Module mod_cache
  3.23.1  Related Modules and Directives
  3.23.2  Sample Configuration
  3.23.3  Avoiding the Thundering Herd
 3.24  Apache Module mod_cern_meta
 3.25  Apache Module mod_cgi
  3.25.1  CGI Environment variables
  3.25.2  CGI Debugging
 3.26  Apache Module mod_cgid
 3.27  Apache Module mod_charset_lite
  3.27.1  Common Problems
 3.28  Apache Module mod_dav
  3.28.1  Enabling WebDAV
  3.28.2  Security Issues
  3.28.3  Complex Configurations
 3.29  Apache Module mod_dav_fs
 3.30  Apache Module mod_dav_lock
 3.31  Apache Module mod_dbd
  3.31.1  Connection Pooling
  3.31.2  Apache DBD API
  3.31.3  SQL Prepared Statements
  3.31.4  SECURITY WARNING
 3.32  Apache Module mod_deflate
  3.32.1  Sample Configurations
  3.32.2  Enabling Compression
  3.32.3  Dealing with proxy servers
 3.33  Apache Module mod_dir
 3.34  Apache Module mod_disk_cache
 3.35  Apache Module mod_dumpio
  3.35.1  Enabling dumpio Support
 3.36  Apache Module mod_echo
 3.37  Apache Module mod_env
 3.38  Apache Module mod_example
  3.38.1  Compiling the example module
  3.38.2  Using the mod_example Module
 3.39  Apache Module mod_expires
  3.39.1  Alternate Interval Syntax
 3.40  Apache Module mod_ext_filter
  3.40.1  Examples
 3.41  Apache Module mod_file_cache
  3.41.1  Using mod_file_cache
 3.42  Apache Module mod_filter
  3.42.1  Smart Filtering
  3.42.2  Filter Declarations, Providers and Chains
  3.42.3  Configuring the Chain
  3.42.4  Filtering and Response Status
  3.42.5  Examples
  3.42.6  Protocol Handling
 3.43  Apache Module mod_headers
  3.43.1  Order of Processing
  3.43.2  Early and Late Processing
  3.43.3  Examples
 3.44  Apache Module mod_ident
 3.45  Apache Module mod_imagemap
  3.45.1  New Features
  3.45.2  Imagemap File
  3.45.3  Example Mapfile
  3.45.4  Referencing your mapfile
 3.46  Apache Module mod_include
  3.46.1  Enabling Server-Side Includes
  3.46.2  PATH_INFO with Server Side Includes
  3.46.3  Basic Elements
  3.46.4  Include Variables
  3.46.5  Variable Substitution
  3.46.6  Flow Control Elements
 3.47  Apache Module mod_info
  3.47.1  Security Issues
  3.47.2  Selecting the information shown
  3.47.3  Known Limitations
 3.48  Apache Module mod_isapi
  3.48.1  Usage
  3.48.2  Additional Notes
  3.48.3  Programmer’s Journal
 3.49  Apache Module mod_ldap
  3.49.1  Example Configuration
  3.49.2  LDAP Connection Pool
  3.49.3  LDAP Cache
  3.49.4  Using SSL/TLS
  3.49.5  SSL/TLS Certificates
 3.50  Apache Module mod_log_config
  3.50.1  Custom Log Formats
  3.50.2  Security Considerations
 3.51  Apache Module mod_log_forensic
  3.51.1  Forensic Log Format
  3.51.2  Security Considerations
 3.52  Apache Module mod_logio
  3.52.1  Custom Log Formats
 3.53  Apache Module mod_mem_cache
 3.54  Apache Module mod_mime
  3.54.1  Files with Multiple Extensions
  3.54.2  Content encoding
  3.54.3  Character sets and languages
 3.55  Apache Module mod_mime_magic
  3.55.1  Format of the Magic File
  3.55.2  Performance Issues
  3.55.3  Notes
 3.56  Apache Module mod_negotiation
  3.56.1  Type maps
  3.56.2  MultiViews
 3.57  Apache Module mod_nw_ssl
 3.58  Apache Module mod_proxy
  3.58.1  Forward Proxies and Reverse Proxies/Gateways
  3.58.2  Basic Examples
  3.58.3  Workers
  3.58.4  Controlling access to your proxy
  3.58.5  Slow Startup
  3.58.6  Intranet Proxy
  3.58.7  Protocol Adjustments
  3.58.8  Request Bodies
  3.58.9  Reverse Proxy Request Headers
 3.59  Apache Module mod_proxy_ajp
  3.59.1  Overview of the protocol
  3.59.2  Basic Packet Structure
  3.59.3  Request Packet Structure
  3.59.4  Response Packet Structure
 3.60  Apache Module mod_proxy_balancer
  3.60.1  Load balancer scheduler algorithm
  3.60.2  Load balancer stickyness
  3.60.3  Examples of a balancer configuration
  3.60.4  Request Counting Algorithm
  3.60.5  Weighted Traffic Counting Algorithm
  3.60.6  Pending Request Counting Algorithm
  3.60.7  Exported Environment Variables
  3.60.8  Enabling Balancer Manager Support
  3.60.9  Details on load balancer stickyness
  3.60.10  Troubleshooting load balancer stickyness
 3.61  Apache Module mod_proxy_connect
 3.62  Apache Module mod_proxy_ftp
  3.62.1  Why doesn’t file type xxx download via FTP?
  3.62.2  How can I force an FTP ASCII download of File xxx?
  3.62.3  How can I do FTP upload?
  3.62.4  How can I access FTP files outside of my home directory?
  3.62.5  How can I hide the FTP cleartext password in my browser’s URL line?
 3.63  Apache Module mod_proxy_http
  3.63.1  Environment Variables
 3.64  Apache Module mod_proxy_scgi
  3.64.1  Examples
 3.65  Apache Module mod_reqtimeout
  3.65.1  Examples
 3.66  Apache Module mod_rewrite
  3.66.1  Quoting Special Characters
  3.66.2  Environment Variables
  3.66.3  Rewriting in Virtual Hosts
  3.66.4  Practical Solutions
 3.67  Apache Module mod_setenvif
 3.68  Apache Module mod_so
  3.68.1  Creating Loadable Modules for Windows
 3.69  Apache Module mod_speling
 3.70  Apache Module mod_ssl
  3.70.1  Environment Variables
  3.70.2  Custom Log Formats
 3.71  Apache Module mod_status
  3.71.1  Enabling Status Support
  3.71.2  Automatic Updates
  3.71.3  Machine Readable Status File
 3.72  Apache Module mod_substitute
 3.73  Apache Module mod_suexec
 3.74  Apache Module mod_unique_id
  3.74.1  Theory
 3.75  Apache Module mod_userdir
 3.76  Apache Module mod_usertrack
  3.76.1  Logging
  3.76.2  2-digit or 4-digit dates for cookies?
 3.77  Apache Module mod_version
 3.78  Apache Module mod_vhost_alias
  3.78.1  Directory Name Interpolation
  3.78.2  Examples
 3.79  Apache Module beos
 3.80  Apache Module mpm_common
 3.81  Apache Module event
  3.81.1  How it Works
  3.81.2  Requirements
 3.82  Apache Module prefork
  3.82.1  How it Works
 3.83  Apache Module mpm_winnt
 3.84  Apache Module worker
  3.84.1  How it Works
4  Apache Virtual Host documentation
 4.1  Apache Virtual Host documentation
  4.1.1  Virtual Host Support
  4.1.2  Configuration directives
 4.2  Name-based Virtual Host Support
  4.2.1  Name-based vs. IP-based Virtual Hosts
  4.2.2  Using Name-based Virtual Hosts
  4.2.3  Compatibility with Older Browsers
 4.3  Apache IP-based Virtual Host Support
  4.3.1  System requirements
  4.3.2  How to set up Apache
  4.3.3  Setting up multiple daemons
  4.3.4  Setting up a single daemon with virtual hosts
 4.4  Dynamically configured mass virtual hosting
  4.4.1  Motivation
  4.4.2  Overview
  4.4.3  Simple dynamic virtual hosts
  4.4.4  A virtually hosted homepages system
  4.4.5  Using more than one virtual hosting system on the same server
  4.4.6  More efficient IP-based virtual hosting
  4.4.7  Simple dynamic virtual hosts using mod_rewrite
  4.4.8  A homepages system using mod_rewrite
  4.4.9  Using a separate virtual host configuration file
 4.5  VirtualHost Examples
  4.5.1  Running several name-based web sites on a single IP address.
  4.5.2  Name-based hosts on more than one IP address.
  4.5.3  Serving the same content on different IP addresses (such as an internal and external address).
  4.5.4  Running different sites on different ports.
  4.5.5  IP-based virtual hosting
  4.5.6  Mixed port-based and ip-based virtual hosts
  4.5.7  Mixed name-based and IP-based vhosts
  4.5.8  Using Virtual_host and mod_proxy together
  4.5.9  Using _default_ vhosts
  4.5.10  Migrating a name-based vhost to an IP-based vhost
  4.5.11  Using the ServerPath directive
 4.6  An In-Depth Discussion of Virtual Host Matching
  4.6.1  Config File Parsing
  4.6.2  Virtual Host Matching
  4.6.3  Tips
 4.7  File Descriptor Limits
  4.7.1  Splitting up your log files
 4.8  Issues Regarding DNS and Apache
  4.8.1  A Simple Example
  4.8.2  Denial of Service
  4.8.3  The "main server" Address
  4.8.4  Tips to Avoid These Problems
  4.8.5  Appendix: Future Directions
5  URL Rewriting Guide
 5.1  Apache mod_rewrite
  5.1.1  Documentation
 5.2  Apache mod_rewrite Introduction
  5.2.1  Introduction
  5.2.2  Regular Expressions
  5.2.3  RewriteRule basics
  5.2.4  Rewrite Flags
  5.2.5  Rewrite conditions
  5.2.6  Rewrite maps
  5.2.7  .htaccess files
 5.3  Apache mod_rewrite Flags
  5.3.1  Introduction
  5.3.2  The flags
 5.4  Apache mod_rewrite Technical Details
  5.4.1  Internal Processing
  5.4.2  API Phases
  5.4.3  Ruleset Processing
 5.5  URL Rewriting Guide
  5.5.1  Canonical URLs
  5.5.2  Canonical Hostnames
  5.5.3  Moved DocumentRoot
  5.5.4  Trailing Slash Problem
  5.5.5  Move Homedirs to Different Webserver
  5.5.6  Search pages in more than one directory
  5.5.7  Set Environment Variables According To URL Parts
  5.5.8  Virtual User Hosts
  5.5.9  Redirect Homedirs For Foreigners
  5.5.10  Redirecting Anchors
  5.5.11  Time-Dependent Rewriting
  5.5.12  Backward Compatibility for YYYY to XXXX migration
  5.5.13  From Old to New (intern)
  5.5.14  From Old to New (extern)
  5.5.15  From Static to Dynamic
  5.5.16  Blocking of Robots
  5.5.17  Blocked Inline-Images
  5.5.18  Proxy Deny
  5.5.19  External Rewriting Engine
 5.6  URL Rewriting Guide - Advanced topics
  5.6.1  Web Cluster with Consistent URL Space
  5.6.2  Structured Homedirs
  5.6.3  Filesystem Reorganization
  5.6.4  Redirect Failing URLs to Another Web Server
  5.6.5  Archive Access Multiplexer
  5.6.6  Browser Dependent Content
  5.6.7  Dynamic Mirror
  5.6.8  Reverse Dynamic Mirror
  5.6.9  Retrieve Missing Data from Intranet
  5.6.10  Load Balancing
  5.6.11  New MIME-type, New Service
  5.6.12  On-the-fly Content-Regeneration
  5.6.13  Document With Autorefresh
  5.6.14  Mass Virtual Hosting
  5.6.15  Host Deny
  5.6.16  Proxy Deny
  5.6.17  Special Authentication Variant
  5.6.18  Referer-based Deflector
 5.7  SSL/TLS Strong Encryption: An Introduction
  5.7.1  Cryptographic Techniques
  5.7.2  Certificates
  5.7.3  Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
  5.7.4  References
6  Authentication, Authorization and Access Control
 6.1  Related Modules and Directives
 6.2  Introduction
 6.3  The Prerequisites
 6.4  Getting it working
 6.5  Letting more than one person in
 6.6  Possible problems
 6.7  Alternate password storage
 6.8  More information
7  Access Control
 7.1  Related Modules and Directives
 7.2  Access control by host
 7.3  Access control by environment variable
 7.4  Access control with mod_rewrite
 7.5  More information
8  Caching Guide
 8.1  Introduction
 8.2  Caching Overview
  8.2.1  Improving Cache Hits
  8.2.2  Expiry Periods
  8.2.3  A Brief Guide to Conditional Requests
  8.2.4  What Can be Cached?
  8.2.5  What Should Not be Cached?
  8.2.6  Variable/Negotiated Content
 8.3  Security Considerations
  8.3.1  Authorization and Access Control
  8.3.2  Local exploits
  8.3.3  Cache Poisoning
 8.4  File-Handle Caching
  8.4.1  CacheFile
  8.4.2  CacheEnable fd
 8.5  In-Memory Caching
  8.5.1  Operating System Caching
  8.5.2  MMapFile Caching
  8.5.3  mod_mem_cache Caching
 8.6  Disk-based Caching
  8.6.1  Understanding the Cache-Store
  8.6.2  Maintaining the Disk Cache
9  Apache Tutorial: Dynamic Content with CGI
 9.1  Introduction
 9.2  Configuring Apache to permit CGI
  9.2.1  ScriptAlias
  9.2.2  CGI outside of ScriptAlias directories
  9.2.3  Explicitly using Options to permit CGI execution
  9.2.4  .htaccess files
  9.2.5  User Directories
 9.3  Writing a CGI program
  9.3.1  Your first CGI program
 9.4  But it’s still not working!
  9.4.1  File permissions
  9.4.2  Path information and environment
  9.4.3  Program errors
  9.4.4  Error logs
  9.4.5  Suexec
 9.5  What’s going on behind the scenes?
  9.5.1  Environment variables
  9.5.2  STDIN and STDOUT
 9.6  CGI modules/libraries
 9.7  For more information
10  Apache Tutorial: Introduction to Server Side Includes
 10.1  Introduction
 10.2  What are SSI?
 10.3  Configuring your server to permit SSI
 10.4  Basic SSI directives
  10.4.1  Today’s date
  10.4.2  Modification date of the file
  10.4.3  Including the results of a CGI program
 10.5  Additional examples
  10.5.1  When was this section modified?
  10.5.2  Including a standard footer
 10.6  What else can I config?
 10.7  Executing commands
 10.8  Advanced SSI techniques
  10.8.1  Caveat
  10.8.2  Setting variables
  10.8.3  Conditional expressions
 10.9  Conclusion
11  Apache Tutorial: .htaccess files
 11.1  .htaccess files
 11.2  What they are/How to use them
 11.3  When (not) to use .htaccess files
 11.4  How directives are applied
  11.4.1  Merging of .htaccess with the main configuration files
 11.5  Authentication example
 11.6  Server Side Includes example
 11.7  CGI example
 11.8  Troubleshooting
12  Per-user web directories
 12.1  Per-user web directories
 12.2  Setting the file path with UserDir
 12.3  Redirecting to external URLs
 12.4  Restricting what users are permitted to use this feature
 12.5  Enabling a cgi directory for each user
 12.6  Allowing users to alter configuration
13  Security Tips
 13.1  Keep up to Date
 13.2  Permissions on ServerRoot Directories
 13.3  Server Side Includes
 13.4  CGI in General
 13.5  Non Script Aliased CGI
 13.6  Script Aliased CGI
 13.7  Other sources of dynamic content
 13.8  Protecting System Settings
 13.9  Protect Server Files by Default
 13.10  Watching Your Logs
14  Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
 14.1  Implementation
 14.2  Usage Summary
 14.3  Background
 14.4  Advantages and Disadvantages
15  Content Negotiation
 15.1  About Content Negotiation
 15.2  Negotiation in Apache
  15.2.1  Using a type-map file
  15.2.2  Multiviews
 15.3  The Negotiation Methods
  15.3.1  Dimensions of Negotiation
  15.3.2  Apache Negotiation Algorithm
 15.4  Fiddling with Quality Values
  15.4.1  Media Types and Wildcards
  15.4.2  Language Negotiation Exceptions
 15.5  Extensions to Transparent Content Negotiation
 15.6  Note on hyperlinks and naming conventions
 15.7  Note on Caching
16  Custom Error Responses
 16.1  Behavior
  16.1.1  Old Behavior
  16.1.2  New Behavior
 16.2  Configuration
 16.3  Custom Error Responses and Redirects
  16.3.1  Old behavior
  16.3.2  New behavior
17  Binding
 17.1  Overview
 17.2  Special IPv6 Considerations
 17.3  How This Works With Virtual Hosts
18  Multi-Processing Modules (MPMs)
 18.1  Introduction
 18.2  Choosing an MPM
 18.3  MPM Defaults
19  Environment Variables in Apache
 19.1  Setting Environment Variables
  19.1.1  Basic Environment Manipulation
  19.1.2  Conditional Per-Request Settings
  19.1.3  Unique Identifiers
  19.1.4  Standard CGI Variables
  19.1.5  Some Caveats
 19.2  Using Environment Variables
  19.2.1  CGI Scripts
  19.2.2  SSI Pages
  19.2.3  Access Control
  19.2.4  Conditional Logging
  19.2.5  Conditional Response Headers
  19.2.6  External Filter Activation
  19.2.7  URL Rewriting
 19.3  Special Purpose Environment Variables
  19.3.1  downgrade-1.0
  19.3.2  force-gzip
  19.3.3  force-no-vary
  19.3.4  force-response-1.0
  19.3.5  gzip-only-text/html
  19.3.6  no-gzip
  19.3.7  no-cache
  19.3.8  nokeepalive
  19.3.9  prefer-language
  19.3.10  redirect-carefully
  19.3.11  suppress-error-charset
  19.3.12  force-proxy-request-1.0, proxy-nokeepalive, proxy-sendchunked, proxy-sendcl, proxy-chain-auth, proxy-interim-response, proxy-initial-not-pooled
 19.4  Examples
  19.4.1  Changing protocol behavior with misbehaving clients
  19.4.2  Do not log requests for images in the access log
  19.4.3  Prevent "Image Theft"
20  Apache’s Handler Use
 20.1  What is a Handler
 20.2  Examples
  20.2.1  Modifying static content using a CGI script
  20.2.2  Files with HTTP headers
 20.3  Programmer’s Note
21  Filters
 21.1  Filtering in Apache 2
 21.2  Smart Filtering
 21.3  Using Filters
22  suEXEC Support
 22.1  Before we begin
 22.2  suEXEC Security Model
 22.3  Configuring & Installing suEXEC
  22.3.1  Compiling and installing the suEXEC wrapper
  22.3.2  Setting paranoid permissions
 22.4  Enabling & Disabling suEXEC
 22.5  Using suEXEC
 22.6  Debugging suEXEC
 22.7  Beware the Jabberwock: Warnings & Examples
23  Apache Performance Tuning
 23.1  Hardware and Operating System Issues
 23.2  Run-Time Configuration Issues
  23.2.1  HostnameLookups and other DNS considerations
  23.2.2  FollowSymLinks and SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
  23.2.3  AllowOverride
  23.2.4  Negotiation
  23.2.5  Memory-mapping
  23.2.6  Sendfile
  23.2.7  Process Creation
 23.3  Compile-Time Configuration Issues
  23.3.1  Choosing an MPM
  23.3.2  Modules
  23.3.3  Atomic Operations
  23.3.4  mod_status and ExtendedStatus On
  23.3.5  accept Serialization - multiple sockets
  23.3.6  accept Serialization - single socket
  23.3.7  Lingering Close
  23.3.8  Scoreboard File
  23.3.9  DYNAMIC_MODULE_LIMIT
 23.4  Appendix: Detailed Analysis of a Trace
24  Frequently Asked Questions
 24.1  "Why can’t I …? Why won’t … work?" What to do in case of problems
 24.2  Whom do I contact for support?
25  Using Apache HTTP Server on Microsoft Windows
 25.1  Operating System Requirements
 25.2  Downloading Apache for Windows
 25.3  Installing Apache for Windows
 25.4  Customizing Apache for Windows
 25.5  Running Apache as a Service
 25.6  Running Apache as a Console Application
 25.7  Testing the Installation
26  Compiling Apache for Microsoft Windows
 26.1  Requirements
 26.2  Command-Line Build
 26.3  Developer Studio Workspace IDE Build
 26.4  Exporting command-line .mak files
 26.5  Installation
 26.6  Warning about building Apache from the development tree
27  The Apache EBCDIC Port
 27.1  Overview of the Apache EBCDIC Port
 27.2  Design Goals
 27.3  Technical Solution
 27.4  Porting Notes
 27.5  Document Storage Notes
  27.5.1  Binary Files
  27.5.2  Text Documents
  27.5.3  Server Side Included Documents
 27.6  Apache Modules’ Status
 27.7  Third Party Modules’ Status
28  Relevant Standards
 28.1  HTTP Recommendations
 28.2  HTML Recommendations
 28.3  Authentication
 28.4  Language/Country Codes
29  Password Formats
 29.1  Basic Authentication
  29.1.1  Generating values with htpasswd
  29.1.2  Generating CRYPT and MD5 values with the OpenSSL command-line program
  29.1.3  Validating CRYPT or MD5 passwords with the OpenSSL command line program
  29.1.4  Database password fields for mod_dbd
 29.2  Digest Authentication
  29.2.1  Database password fields for mod_dbd
30  Release Notes
 30.1  Compiling and Installing
  30.1.1  Overview for the impatient
  30.1.2  Requirements
  30.1.3  Download
  30.1.4  Extract
  30.1.5  Configuring the source tree
  30.1.6  Build
  30.1.7  Install
  30.1.8  Customize
  30.1.9  Test
  30.1.10  Upgrading
 30.2  Upgrading to 2.2 from 2.0
  30.2.1  Compile-Time Configuration Changes
  30.2.2  Run-Time Configuration Changes
  30.2.3  Misc Changes
  30.2.4  Third Party Modules
 30.3  Overview of new features in Apache 2.2
  30.3.1  Core Enhancements
  30.3.2  Module Enhancements
  30.3.3  Program Enhancements
  30.3.4  Module Developer Changes
 30.4  Overview of new features in Apache 2.0
  30.4.1  Core Enhancements
  30.4.2  Module Enhancements
 30.5  The Apache License, Version 2.0
 30.6  NOTICE
31  Glossary and Index
 31.1  Glossary
  31.1.1  Definitions
 31.2  Module Index
 31.3  Directive Quick Reference

ISBN 9781906966034The Apache HTTP Server Reference ManualSee the print edition