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Apache HTTP Server Reference Manual

for Apache version 2.2.17

Apache Software Foundation

Published by Network Theory Ltd

Copyright ©2005 The Apache Software Foundation.
Copyright ©2010 Network Theory Ltd. Minor modifications for publication.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the ”License”); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

This version of the Apache HTTP Server Documentation is converted from XML source files to LATEX using XSLT. While every care has been taken by the publisher, this book is a reformatted work and may contain conversion errors. The reference version of the documentation can be found on the Apache HTTP Server website at http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/.

Contents
1  Apache HTTP Server and Supporting Programs
 1.1  Server and Supporting Programs
 1.2  httpd - Apache Hypertext Transfer Protocol Server
 1.3  ab - Apache HTTP server benchmarking tool
 1.4  apachectl - Apache HTTP Server Control Interface
 1.5  apxs - APache eXtenSion tool
 1.6  configure - Configure the source tree
 1.7  dbmmanage - Manage user authentication files in DBM format
 1.8  htcacheclean - Clean up the disk cache
 1.9  htdbm - Manipulate DBM password databases
 1.10  htdigest - manage user files for digest authentication
 1.11  htpasswd - Manage user files for basic authentication
 1.12  httxt2dbm - Generate dbm files for use with RewriteMap
 1.13  logresolve - Resolve IP-addresses to hostnames in Apache log files
 1.14  rotatelogs - Piped logging program to rotate Apache logs
 1.15  suexec - Switch user before executing external programs
 1.16  Other Programs
2  Using the Apache HTTP Server
 2.1  Starting Apache
 2.2  Stopping and Restarting
 2.3  Configuration Files
 2.4  Configuration Sections
 2.5  Server-Wide Configuration
 2.6  Log Files
 2.7  Mapping URLs to Filesystem Locations
3  Apache modules
 3.1  Terms Used to Describe Modules
 3.2  Terms Used to Describe Directives
 3.3  Apache Module core
 3.4  Apache Module mod_actions
 3.5  Apache Module mod_alias
 3.6  Apache Module mod_asis
 3.7  Apache Module mod_auth_basic
 3.8  Apache Module mod_auth_digest
 3.9  Apache Module mod_authn_alias
 3.10  Apache Module mod_authn_anon
 3.11  Apache Module mod_authn_dbd
 3.12  Apache Module mod_authn_dbm
 3.13  Apache Module mod_authn_default
 3.14  Apache Module mod_authn_file
 3.15  Apache Module mod_authnz_ldap
 3.16  Apache Module mod_authz_dbm
 3.17  Apache Module mod_authz_default
 3.18  Apache Module mod_authz_groupfile
 3.19  Apache Module mod_authz_host
 3.20  Apache Module mod_authz_owner
 3.21  Apache Module mod_authz_user
 3.22  Apache Module mod_autoindex
 3.23  Apache Module mod_cache
 3.24  Apache Module mod_cern_meta
 3.25  Apache Module mod_cgi
 3.26  Apache Module mod_cgid
 3.27  Apache Module mod_charset_lite
 3.28  Apache Module mod_dav
 3.29  Apache Module mod_dav_fs
 3.30  Apache Module mod_dav_lock
 3.31  Apache Module mod_dbd
 3.32  Apache Module mod_deflate
 3.33  Apache Module mod_dir
 3.34  Apache Module mod_disk_cache
 3.35  Apache Module mod_dumpio
 3.36  Apache Module mod_echo
 3.37  Apache Module mod_env
 3.38  Apache Module mod_example
 3.39  Apache Module mod_expires
 3.40  Apache Module mod_ext_filter
 3.41  Apache Module mod_file_cache
 3.42  Apache Module mod_filter
 3.43  Apache Module mod_headers
 3.44  Apache Module mod_ident
 3.45  Apache Module mod_imagemap
 3.46  Apache Module mod_include
 3.47  Apache Module mod_info
 3.48  Apache Module mod_isapi
 3.49  Apache Module mod_ldap
 3.50  Apache Module mod_log_config
 3.51  Apache Module mod_log_forensic
 3.52  Apache Module mod_logio
 3.53  Apache Module mod_mem_cache
 3.54  Apache Module mod_mime
 3.55  Apache Module mod_mime_magic
 3.56  Apache Module mod_negotiation
 3.57  Apache Module mod_nw_ssl
 3.58  Apache Module mod_proxy
 3.59  Apache Module mod_proxy_ajp
 3.60  Apache Module mod_proxy_balancer
 3.61  Apache Module mod_proxy_connect
 3.62  Apache Module mod_proxy_ftp
 3.63  Apache Module mod_proxy_http
 3.64  Apache Module mod_proxy_scgi
 3.65  Apache Module mod_reqtimeout
 3.66  Apache Module mod_rewrite
 3.67  Apache Module mod_setenvif
 3.68  Apache Module mod_so
 3.69  Apache Module mod_speling
 3.70  Apache Module mod_ssl
 3.71  Apache Module mod_status
 3.72  Apache Module mod_substitute
 3.73  Apache Module mod_suexec
 3.74  Apache Module mod_unique_id
 3.75  Apache Module mod_userdir
 3.76  Apache Module mod_usertrack
 3.77  Apache Module mod_version
 3.78  Apache Module mod_vhost_alias
 3.79  Apache Module beos
 3.80  Apache Module mpm_common
 3.81  Apache Module event
 3.82  Apache Module prefork
 3.83  Apache Module mpm_winnt
 3.84  Apache Module worker
4  Apache Virtual Host documentation
 4.1  Apache Virtual Host documentation
 4.2  Name-based Virtual Host Support
 4.3  Apache IP-based Virtual Host Support
 4.4  Dynamically configured mass virtual hosting
 4.5  VirtualHost Examples
 4.6  An In-Depth Discussion of Virtual Host Matching
 4.7  File Descriptor Limits
 4.8  Issues Regarding DNS and Apache
5  URL Rewriting Guide
 5.1  Apache mod_rewrite
 5.2  Apache mod_rewrite Introduction
 5.3  Apache mod_rewrite Flags
 5.4  Apache mod_rewrite Technical Details
 5.5  URL Rewriting Guide
 5.6  URL Rewriting Guide - Advanced topics
 5.7  SSL/TLS Strong Encryption: An Introduction
6  Authentication, Authorization and Access Control
 6.1  Related Modules and Directives
 6.2  Introduction
 6.3  The Prerequisites
 6.4  Getting it working
 6.5  Letting more than one person in
 6.6  Possible problems
 6.7  Alternate password storage
 6.8  More information
7  Access Control
 7.1  Related Modules and Directives
 7.2  Access control by host
 7.3  Access control by environment variable
 7.4  Access control with mod_rewrite
 7.5  More information
8  Caching Guide
 8.1  Introduction
 8.2  Caching Overview
 8.3  Security Considerations
 8.4  File-Handle Caching
 8.5  In-Memory Caching
 8.6  Disk-based Caching
9  Apache Tutorial: Dynamic Content with CGI
 9.1  Introduction
 9.2  Configuring Apache to permit CGI
 9.3  Writing a CGI program
 9.4  But it’s still not working!
 9.5  What’s going on behind the scenes?
 9.6  CGI modules/libraries
 9.7  For more information
10  Apache Tutorial: Introduction to Server Side Includes
 10.1  Introduction
 10.2  What are SSI?
 10.3  Configuring your server to permit SSI
 10.4  Basic SSI directives
 10.5  Additional examples
 10.6  What else can I config?
 10.7  Executing commands
 10.8  Advanced SSI techniques
 10.9  Conclusion
11  Apache Tutorial: .htaccess files
 11.1  .htaccess files
 11.2  What they are/How to use them
 11.3  When (not) to use .htaccess files
 11.4  How directives are applied
 11.5  Authentication example
 11.6  Server Side Includes example
 11.7  CGI example
 11.8  Troubleshooting
12  Per-user web directories
 12.1  Per-user web directories
 12.2  Setting the file path with UserDir
 12.3  Redirecting to external URLs
 12.4  Restricting what users are permitted to use this feature
 12.5  Enabling a cgi directory for each user
 12.6  Allowing users to alter configuration
13  Security Tips
 13.1  Keep up to Date
 13.2  Permissions on ServerRoot Directories
 13.3  Server Side Includes
 13.4  CGI in General
 13.5  Non Script Aliased CGI
 13.6  Script Aliased CGI
 13.7  Other sources of dynamic content
 13.8  Protecting System Settings
 13.9  Protect Server Files by Default
 13.10  Watching Your Logs
14  Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
 14.1  Implementation
 14.2  Usage Summary
 14.3  Background
 14.4  Advantages and Disadvantages
15  Content Negotiation
 15.1  About Content Negotiation
 15.2  Negotiation in Apache
 15.3  The Negotiation Methods
 15.4  Fiddling with Quality Values
 15.5  Extensions to Transparent Content Negotiation
 15.6  Note on hyperlinks and naming conventions
 15.7  Note on Caching
16  Custom Error Responses
 16.1  Behavior
 16.2  Configuration
 16.3  Custom Error Responses and Redirects
17  Binding
 17.1  Overview
 17.2  Special IPv6 Considerations
 17.3  How This Works With Virtual Hosts
18  Multi-Processing Modules (MPMs)
 18.1  Introduction
 18.2  Choosing an MPM
 18.3  MPM Defaults
19  Environment Variables in Apache
 19.1  Setting Environment Variables
 19.2  Using Environment Variables
 19.3  Special Purpose Environment Variables
 19.4  Examples
20  Apache’s Handler Use
 20.1  What is a Handler
 20.2  Examples
 20.3  Programmer’s Note
21  Filters
 21.1  Filtering in Apache 2
 21.2  Smart Filtering
 21.3  Using Filters
22  suEXEC Support
 22.1  Before we begin
 22.2  suEXEC Security Model
 22.3  Configuring & Installing suEXEC
 22.4  Enabling & Disabling suEXEC
 22.5  Using suEXEC
 22.6  Debugging suEXEC
 22.7  Beware the Jabberwock: Warnings & Examples
23  Apache Performance Tuning
 23.1  Hardware and Operating System Issues
 23.2  Run-Time Configuration Issues
 23.3  Compile-Time Configuration Issues
 23.4  Appendix: Detailed Analysis of a Trace
24  Frequently Asked Questions
 24.1  "Why can’t I …? Why won’t … work?" What to do in case of problems
 24.2  Whom do I contact for support?
25  Using Apache HTTP Server on Microsoft Windows
 25.1  Operating System Requirements
 25.2  Downloading Apache for Windows
 25.3  Installing Apache for Windows
 25.4  Customizing Apache for Windows
 25.5  Running Apache as a Service
 25.6  Running Apache as a Console Application
 25.7  Testing the Installation
26  Compiling Apache for Microsoft Windows
 26.1  Requirements
 26.2  Command-Line Build
 26.3  Developer Studio Workspace IDE Build
 26.4  Exporting command-line .mak files
 26.5  Installation
 26.6  Warning about building Apache from the development tree
27  The Apache EBCDIC Port
 27.1  Overview of the Apache EBCDIC Port
 27.2  Design Goals
 27.3  Technical Solution
 27.4  Porting Notes
 27.5  Document Storage Notes
 27.6  Apache Modules’ Status
 27.7  Third Party Modules’ Status
28  Relevant Standards
 28.1  HTTP Recommendations
 28.2  HTML Recommendations
 28.3  Authentication
 28.4  Language/Country Codes
29  Password Formats
 29.1  Basic Authentication
 29.2  Digest Authentication
30  Release Notes
 30.1  Compiling and Installing
 30.2  Upgrading to 2.2 from 2.0
 30.3  Overview of new features in Apache 2.2
 30.4  Overview of new features in Apache 2.0
 30.5  The Apache License, Version 2.0
 30.6  NOTICE
31  Glossary and Index
 31.1  Glossary
 31.2  Module Index
 Other Modules
 31.3  Directive Quick Reference
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ISBN 9781906966034The Apache HTTP Server Reference ManualSee the print edition